Some Linux kernel developers have been attempting to produce decent, process-hierarchy based, resource control. The first real attempt at this was Cgroups (for “control groups”; also known as “cgroups” due to the emerging trend of refusing to capitalise proper nouns, see also [Ss]ystemd). The original Cgroups interface is known as Cgroups-v1, and is described in the kernel documentation. The main principles are pretty straightforward: you mount a special “cgroup” file system somewhere, and create directories in it to represent control groups whose resource usage you want to limit; each directory created will automatically contain a bunch of files used to control the group. You can create nested hierarchy such that there are groups within other groups, and the nested groups share the resources of their parent group (and may be further limited). You move a process into a group by writing its PID into one of the group’s control files. A group therefore potentially contains both processes and subgroups.
The two obvious resources you might want to limit are memory and CPU time, and each of these has a “controller”, but there are potentially others (such as I/O bandwidth), and some Cgroup controllers don’t really manage resource utilisation as such (eg the “freezer” controller/subsystem). The Cgroups v1 interface allowed creating multiple hierarchies with different controllers attached to them (the value of this is dubious, but the possibility is there).
Importantly, processes inherit their cgroup membership from their parent process, and cannot move themselves out of (or into) a cgroup unless they have appropriate privileges, which means that a process cannot escape its any limitations that have been imposed on it by forking. Compare this with the use of setrlimit, where a process’s use of memory (for example) can be limited using an RLIMIT_AS (address space) limitation, but the process can fork and its children can consume additional memory without drawing from the resources of the original process. With Cgroups on the other hand, a process and all its children draw resources from the containing group.
Cgroups are all very nice, in principle, but the interface was perceived to have some problems, leading to an effort to produce an improved interface – Cgroups v2 – and this is where the fun begins.
The second version of the Cgroups interface is also described in kernel documentation; the most interesting part from the perspective of the issues that will be discussed here are in an appendix, titled “R. Issues with v1 and Rationales for v2”. Let’s take a look at these issues:
1. Multiple hierarchies
The argument is that having multiple hierarchies is messy from an interface viewpoint and it also limits and/or complicates the implementation. Cgroups v2 has a “unified hierarchy” where you can enable or disable controllers at the group level (disabling a controller effectively flattens the hierarchy at that point, from the viewpoint of that particular controller only; so there are still multiple hierarchies in a sense, but they are limited to sharing the same overall structure). I think this makes sense.
2. Thread granularity
The v1 interface assigned individual threads to control groups; in v2, processes are assigned. This makes sense because the hierarchy is really a process hierarchy; processes are children of other processes, not of threads. Many resources are arbitrated at the process level (eg threads all share the same memory), and those that aren’t can be dealt with in other ways (it’s already possible to assign different processing priorities to different threads, for example).
There’s another point raised during the discussion of process-vs-thread granularity however:
cgroups were delegated to individual applications so that they can create and manage their own sub-hierarchies and control resource distributions along them. This effectively raised cgroup to the status of a syscall-like API exposed to lay programs.
I’m having a hard time understanding why this is a bad thing. Shouldn’t a process be able to limit the resource allocation to its children? Wouldn’t that be a good thing?
cgroup controllers implemented a number of knobs which would never be accepted as public APIs because they were just adding control knobs to system-management pseudo filesystem. cgroup ended up with interface knobs which were not properly abstracted or refined and directly revealed kernel internal details. These knobs got exposed to individual applications through the ill-defined delegation mechanism
effectively abusing cgroup as a shortcut to implementing public APIs
without going through the required scrutiny.
I think the argument here is essentially that some controllers exposed things they shouldn’t have. That may well be true, but is hardly an argument for a complete re-design of the whole interface.
3. Processes and child groups with common parent
Cgroup v1 allowed processes and sub-groups to coexist within a parent group; specifically (and this is where the bollocks kicks in):
cgroup v1 allowed threads to be in any cgroups which created an interesting problem where threads belonging to a parent cgroup and its children cgroups competed for resources. This was nasty as two different types of entities competed and there was no obvious way to settle it. Different controllers did different things.
Cgroups v2 no longer allows a group with controllers enabled (except for the root group) to contain both processes and subgroups, but this is an awkward limitation that achieves nothing (other than perhaps a slight simplification of implementation at the cost of usability). It’s completely untrue that there is “no obvious way to settle it”. Consider the resource distribution models outlined in the same document:
- Weights – clearly processes have the default weight (specified as 100). Child groups have an assigned weight (as they already do).
- Limits – processes are unlimited (except by limits inherited through ancestor groups). Child groups have the specified limit.
- Protections – processes have no protection (except what is inherited). Child groups have the specified resource protection.
- Allocations – processes have no allocation (except what is inherited). Child groups have the specified resource protection.
In all cases above, it is completely clear how to settle competition for resources between processes and child groups.
(I would suggest that a nice additional feature would be the ability to specify child groups as having the combined weight of their children – an option that is not currently available, but which could potentially be useful if you don’t want to control some particular resource at the level of that child).
The io controller implicitly created a hidden leaf node for each cgroup to host the threads [… which] made the interface messy and significantly complicated the implementation.
Well, that sucks. The IO controller should have been fixed as per above (and if you want to control the resources of the immediate process children as a group, then create a group for them, duh). There’s no need for the creation of hidden leaf nodes; the processes are leaf nodes. The fact that one or two controllers did something stupid / had implementation flaws is not a good argument for prohibiting groups from containing both process nodes and child groups. What’s more:
The root cgroup is exempt from this restriction. Root contains processes and anonymous resource consumption which can’t be associated with any other cgroups and requires special treatment from most controllers. How resource consumption in the root cgroup is governed is up to each controller.
So each controller is required to support contention between processes and groups anyway. That pretty much knocks the “it simplifies the implementation” argument on the head.
This clearly is a problem which needs to be addressed from cgroup core in a uniform way.
No; it’s a problem that needs to be addressed in the controllers in a uniform way. This restriction just makes the interface clunky.
As a basic example, let’s say I have some process that wants to run a child process with resource constraints. The first step then is to create a cgroup (call it B) which is a child of my own cgroup (A). I then enable some controller for B (note that I can’t enable the controller on A, since it contains processes). I then have to create another cgroup (C) inside B, so that I can move my child process into it.
Yes, that’s right: I had to create two cgroups just to control the resource allocation for one process. And this wasn’t even necessary with the old v1 interface. Things actually got worse.
Another example: let say I want to run a child process, but make sure it and any children it spawns get the combined timeslice that would have been given to the one process (in other words, I want it to have a regular fair share of processor time, but I don’t want it soaking up more cycles by forking a bunch of children). I can’t actually do this at all with the v2 interface: the closest I can come is [ed: put the child in a nested group as described above and then] put some hard limit on the group’s processor allocation, but that won’t reflect the dynamically changing amount of time that could be allocated to the parent process. (I could put the parent process in a group as well, but then it doesn’t get equal distribution with it siblings). The v1 interface at least made this potentially possible (though the necessary controller was not implemented, it seems).
Other points to note
Cgroups have a mechanism to notify userspace when a group becomes empty; this has vastly improved between v1 and v2, thankfully (for v1 you had to specify a binary to be launched as a notification, urgh).
Systemd uses the properties of Cgroups to realise a form of better session management: whereas even unprivileged processes can “daemonise” to escape their process hierarchy, they cannot so easily escape a control group. Unfortunately, however, there is no way to reliably kill off a group. The approach used by Systemd is to iterate through the process ids in the group and send a signal to each one; however, this is racy – the process may have died in the meantime, and even worse, the process ID may have been recycled and given to a new process (that’s right – Systemd potentially kills off the wrong process). It would be really nice if it were possible to send a signal to an entire group atomically.
Cgroups v2 gives us a unified hierarchy, improved “empty group” notification, and an annoying interface quirk which makes it in many respects more complicated than the v1 interface. Two steps forward, one backwards, I guess. On the plus side, I think the issue with the v2 interface should be fixable in a 100% backwards-compatible way. Whether that will actually happen or not, time will tell.